The human body is composed of many systems within systems and despite the complexity of their interactions, communication between subsystems is remarkable efficient, organized and coordinated.  In the human body, subsystems include the immune system, nervous system, cardiovascular system etc. Within these subsystems are individual organs which are in turn composed of individual units called cells. Each cell is composed of thousands of individual molecules, which in turn are made up of atoms and subatomic particles.

This top-down model of causation is a new perspective in modern systems biology, but quantum biology proposes a bottoms up model, whereby quantum processes are the most fundamental and the starting point for regulation of each higher level. Quantum biology further postulates that not only can biomolecules carry information to be transmitted between levels and sublevels, but elementary particles and their corresponding fields can also carry information. The quantum nature of this information and information transfer processes is only now being investigated in academic institutions. The nature of this quantum information is being studied both experimentally and theoretically using mathematical models. Communication between levels and sublevels can be considered as global communication channels. These channels carry information throughout the body in order to maintain homeostasis and health. Extending these concepts to medicine, disease can be considered to arise from either blocks in information transfer processes or the presence (and transfer) of disease information. Therefore, in addition to characterizing diseased tissue and cells at the biochemical level, quantum biology postulates that disease processes generate specific information patterns which can be measured. Quantum medicine of the future will involve characterizing diseased information patterns and normalizing them with the appropriate “healing” information patterns. 

Global Energetic Communications Channels

1)   Electromagnetic communication between these systems is mediated by various physical channels in the body. Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels allow the flow fluids containing charged ions and biomolecules. Nerves allow the flow of electrical signals between “electrically excitable” systems like the brain and the heart. In addition, a whole-body electromagnetic communication system has been proposed by numerous scientists, dating back to the elegant research of Burr in the 1930’s. We now know that the “body electric” is composed of complex electrical conduction pathways, not limited to electrically excited cells. Electrical properties of individual biomolecules (eg. collagen, DNA, etc), as well as complex tissues (eg. bone, connective tissue, etc) are mediated by electrons, protons and solitons. The presence of such an underlying, global EM system is supported by numerous electro-dermal measurements taken on the surface of the body, like EEG, ECG, EOG (electro-oculargram), EGG (electro-gastrogram), etc. The EEG measurements on the scalp, for example, represent the sum of all the underlying electrical activity generated from individual and interacting neurons and brain regions.Traditional biologists consider intrinsic EM fields in the body as by-products of chemical and cellular processes and do not acknowledge their functional roles. Nonetheless, there are numerous scientific studies indicating physiological and biochemical effects of classical EM fields, supporting the hypothesis that these fields regulate and control a wide variety of cellular processes. Scientific study of endogenous EM fields in the body (and outside the body) falls within the Bioelectromagnetics community. 

2)  Non-classical electromagnetic fields
Recent analysis of these electro-dermal signals has demonstrated their intrinsic non-linearity. Non-linear EEG analysis for example has shown that EM signalling between neurons and brain regions allows for a highly coordinated (synchronized) long-range communication – as if each part knows what the other is doing. In addition to mediating communication between subsystems within the body, these coordination forces also function at the cellular and molecular levels. In fact these forces are believed to work at all levels, within and between all subsystems in the body, thus creating a new global (long-range) communication system.Working at the molecular level, Frohlich discovered the underlying molecular vibrations that produce these long-range forces. Specifically, he demonstrated the presence of longitudinal oscillations in membrane proteins. Previously only transverse oscillations had been measured in any biological system. Longitudinal oscillations generate non-classical EM fields which are highly coherent and can travel over long distances. In contrast, transverse oscillations generate classical EM fields, described in the previous section. Non-classical EM fields are well known in physics and are called longitudinal waves, potential fields, non-Hertzian or non-Maxwellian fields because they do not obey the mathematical equations of Maxwell and Hertz which only describe the behavior of classical EM fields.Dr. Rein’s contribution to this field is based on experimental evidence that non-Hertzian fields (generated from mobius and caduceus coils) do in fact influence biological systems. These findings suggest that the external non-classical energies resonate with endogenous non-classical energies, thereby supporting the work of Frohlich.  Since then some published studies (in peer-reviewed journals) have demonstrated the presence of longitudinal vibrations and non-Hertzian fields within and between biomolecules, thereby accounting for the presence of a global non-classical energy communcation channel. The author has proposed that this system underlies and regulates classical EM communication channels.

3)   Quantum fields
The fundamental tenet in Quantum Biology is that this coherent, non-classical communication channel within the body arises from the even more fundamental quantum level. A second basic tenet in Quantum Biology is that the quantum level also underlyies and regulates the EM level. The relationship between underlying quantum events and physiological events is being studied experimentally, as well as with theoretical mathematical models. A fundamental goal of Quantum Biology is the experimental demonstration that individual biomolecules and subsystems within the body exhibit macroscopic quantum properties. A second major goal is to demonstrate that the quantum biofields generated by quantum processes in the body form a third coordinated communication system within the body. Unlike the communication systems described above, the quantum communication system is holographic. Furthermore, quantum bio-information can be carried by quantum fields and non-classical fields since both of these fields are described by the Schrodinger equation. Quantum information can travel throughout this communication system instantaneously since these fields can propagate at supra-luminal velocities.Individual quantum domains store bio-information consisting of frequency, phase, coherence, spin and pattern information about the entire body. Quantum information is defined in terms of qubits rather than the classical ‘bit’ typically used in information science. Unlike classical bits, which are distinguishable and separate, qubits are probabilistic and indistinguisable because they are superposed on each other. In biological terms, the two states compromising a qubit can be two isomers (levo-rotatary vs dextro-rotary), two conformational states of the same molecules (the alpha and beta conformmation of tubulin), or two electronic states (excited vs ground). In some cases the two states are separate distinct entities and therefore act as classic information bits (L vs R isomers). In other cases, one state can transform into another or oscillate back and forth between the two states.Accordingly, Hameroff has proposed that microtubules, composed of alpha and beta conformations of tubulin, are involved in quantum information processing in the brain. 

Quantum Properties of Biological Systems

A wide variety of quantum properties, previously thought to only occur at the sub-atomic level, have recently been measured at the macroscopic level. Most of the examples to date involve measuring electrical and optical properties of biological systems, although it is likely in the future many other examples will be found. Quantum properties of biological systems include:

1)    coherent excitations in biomolecules (eg. photosynthesis) 

2)    single-photon induced isomerization and conformational changes in biomolecules (eg. retinal)

3)    coherent emission of photonic and electromagnetic radiation (eg. biophotons)

 4)    quantum entangelment and quantum interference (eg. between spin pairs generated from transitions between singlet and triplet staes in photoreceptors or between two biological systems separated by large distances) 

5)    quantum tunneling of electrons and protons (eg. in hydroben bonds within biomolecules)

6)    superconductivity in biomolecules (eg. DNA).  Of these examples of quantum processess in the body, biophotons have been the most extensively studied. They are highly coherent (more so than man-made lasers) and extensive experimental evidence now exists for their involvement in a global, optical communication system throughout the body.

Other quantum processes have also been postulated because they offer more accurate descriptions of various non-linear processes in biological systems. For example, single-photon emission of highly coherent bio-photons from bio-molecules has been used to explain the extreme sensitivity of rhodopsin to light. Quantum holography has been proposed to explain the complex interaction of the brain. On a more grand scale, quantum superposition of conformational states of biomolecules (like tubulin in microtubules) has been used to explain higher order functions of the mind and consciousness itself. Quantum sorting and quantum searching have been used to explain the self-replicating behavior of biomolecules necessary for biological evolution. Energetic Communication with the EnvironmentIn addition to regulating communication between subsystems in the human body, quantum fields control the absorption of external energies in our environment. Thus, resonant interactions can occur between endogenous EM fields, non-classical fields and quantum fields in the body with similar energies in the environment. Man-made devices typically emit classical EM, optical and acoustic energy fields. In some cases these energies are harmful to the body (eg cell phones, power lines and noise pollution). Recognition of these harmful effects has launched a new scientific discipline – electropollution. Other man-made energies are used by the biomedical community to promote healing (soft lasers, EM healing devices, harmonic music, etc). Of particular interest is the use of quantum fields for the treatment of disease, because of their fundamental nature. The interaction of external quantum fields with (classical and non-classical) EM fields, acoustic energy, optical fields and zero point energy is a core aspect of Quantum Biology. The BiofieldThe three types of energetic communication systems in the body as described above are believed to comprise what has now known as the Biofield. The term Biofield has been recently introduced as a western scientific term and is now accepted by the NIH, although only its classical EM component is recognized by main-stream scientists. Scientific publications using the term Biofield are now appearing in main-stream journals.Furthermore, some scientists would add a fourth subtle component known as qi in China and prana in India. It is further believed that these unknown bio-energies propagate throughout the body via the acupuncture meridian system. Some scientists define these unknown, subtle energies in terms of the three communication systems described above. Dr. Rein has proposed that these subtle energies are another type of bio-information which is carried on quantum fields or non-classical fields within the body. Nonetheless, the presence of a global biofield related to, yet distinct from, the physical body is now being recognized in western science. In the field of Energy Medicine, it is postulated that the biofield underlies, permeates and regulates all physiological processes in the body. In the field of Quantum Biology, the focus is on the quantum fields and their exotic particles (solitons, polarons, excitons, etc) which can also carry bio-information.The relationship between underlying quantum events and physiological events is being studied experimentally, as well as with theoretical mathematical models. How quantum fields control internal energies, how they mediate the body’s response to external energies, (whether they are environment, are man-made or originate from another person), and how they interact with physiological processes is fundamental to the emerging field of Quantum Biology. Understanding of these interactions can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of disease when the quantum properties of diseased and healthy tissues are distinguished. 

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Glen Rein, PhD