IR, Raman, UV and NMR spectroscopy have been used to measure the informational content of homeopathic remedies (Young,1975) or water charged with bioenergy from certain "gifted" individuals (Dean,1983 and Schwartz,1990). In addition to traditional spectroscopy, special methods have been developed based on the principles of spectroscopy. Nelson, for example, measured specific absorption patterns when current was directly delivered to a petri dish containing a homeopathic remedy. Both the signal generator and the oscilloscope were directly connected to the petri dish (Nelson). This work has recently been confirmed by Kenyon in England (Kenyon,1993).
A few spectroscopic measurements have also been obtained from water charged with EM or non-Hertzian fields. Patrovsky measured characteristic changes in IR spectroscopy associated with structuring of water after charging water with ELF or MW frequencies. Smith used a low-noise, high-gain narrow-band amplifier to measure dielectric and capacitance changes in water charged with a 50kHz magnetic field (0.1mT) (Smith,1994). Working in collaboration with Kropp in Switzerland, Smith demonstrated that water charged with a toroid showed unusual absorption changes around 300nm using UV spectroscopy (Smith,94). Ohlenschiager of the University of Frankfurt developed a special resonance spectrophotometer which uses gold electrodes to detect an electromagnetic signal from water acoustically excited with a piezoelectric disc. Fourrier analysis of the resulting signal produced a unique spectrum between 6 and 8 kHz (Wekroma,1989).
Other miscellaneous methods have also been used to measure frequency information in water. Homeopathic remedies, for example, show changes in pH, surface tension, permitivity and dielectric strength (Brucato,1966) as well as conductance, magnetic inductance and capacitance (Kenyon,1993 and Nelson). Changes in some of these physical properties have also been observed in water charged with electromagnetic fields (Kronenberg, 1989). In addition, Jaberansari measured characteristic changes in X-ray crystallography of ice using water which was frozen in the presence of a 12mT DC magnetic field (Jaberansari,1989).
EM fields and non-Hertzian fields were generated for these studies using tree different signal generators:
1. Standard computer: In these experiments square wave signals were generated by an IBM compatible computer using specially designed software . Standard square waves were generated with a single repetition rate of 29kHz or by scanning all frequencies between 37Hz and 37kHz (one second per frequency). The latter will be referred to as the scan signal. A standard computer was also used to generate complex S-EMQS signals using a specially designed software program from Dynamic Engineering, Sacramento, CA. This signal consists of a series of envelopes, repeated every 5 µs and carried on a 60Hz sine wave. Each envelope contained seven superimposed square waves (2-6kHz). This is the same signal which was previously used to charge the water which was used to measure DNA synthesis (see Introduction).
2. GoodField One (Computer Continuum, Daly City, CA): This generator uses two tunable high frequency oscillators that mix together to create beat patterns which generate a wide spectrum of RF frequencies between 17 MHz and 300MHz.
3. REM Superpro (ELF International, St.Francisville, Il): This generator has two modes. In the continuous mode the device scans through three square waves (700-1400 Hz) generated by separate frequency controlled oscillators. In the pulsed mode, the signal was specially modified by a proprietary technique to electronically self-cancel. The coil design used with this generator is also proprietary but is not of a self-canceling configuration. Therefore, the continuous mode generates a conventional EMF, whereas the pulsed mode generates a non-Hertzian field.
The 9-12V signals from these generators were then broadcast through a variety of different coil configurations. The 29kHz signal and the scan signal generated by the computer were fed into a standard caduceus coil. The caduceus coil was wound in the standard cancellation mode (Smith,1964) using 5 layers of insulated 77 ga copper wire. The wires cross over (at a 22° angle) at five nodal points along the active axis corresponding to a length of 17.8 cm. Some of the physical properties and anomalous characteristics of this coil have been previously characterized (Rein, 1991). The resonance frequencies of the caduceus coil were numerous and were not harmonically related with values ranging from 59kHz to 40 MHz.
The 29kHz signal and the scan signal were put into another self-canceling coil configuration designed by Reiter of Computer Continuum (Daly City, CA). This is a flat two-sided spiral coil with two sources of current entering on either side of the coil at the center. The current spirals out clockwise on one side and spirals out counterclockwise on the other side. The resonant frequencies of the spiral coil, which were measured only at 9MHz and 47MHz, are quite different from those of the caduceus coil. S-EMQS signals were delivered through a modified caduceus coil designed by Gagnon. The coil consists of two concentric anti-parallel coils in the same plane. The coil was wound with 24 ga wire to a final impedance of 8.2 ohms (Gagnon and Rein, 1990).
In testing the effects of conventional EMF, the 29kHz signal, the scan signal and the GoodField signal were used in conjunction with a flat spiral coil with current flowing clockwise on both sides. This coil was impedance matched to the self-canceling version of the coil.
These coils were used to charge water for 24-36 hours by placing water in a sealed glass container directly on top of or adjacent to the coils. Water which was taken from the same stock bottle was placed in an identical sealed glass container and was placed at least at least 50 feet from the sample being charged. These samples were used as a control in all experiments. Therein both samples were treated identically and exposed to the same environmental factors (eg. temperature, agitation or exposure to external EMF). Distilled water was used for most experiments since a preliminary study indicated similar results with ultra-pure deionized/distilled water. A constant ratio of water to air was maintained in all experiments. All exposures were done at room temperature in the absence of EM shielding.
A special procedure was developed to measure the information content of water treated with non-Hertzian frequency information. The hardware for these measurements was a double beam, micro computer controlled, temperature regulated Perkin-Elmer Lambda 9 Spectrophotometer. This research grade spectrophotometer is accurate from 185-3200nm. Most spectrophotometers are not sensitive in the near UV region below 200nm. The same cuvette was used for all samples and samples were maintained at 20° C for the duration of the run using a water-jacketed cuvette. One experiment was done using a Brucker IFS 6 Raman spectrophotometer with an FRA 106 Raman unit attachment. All Raman measurements were made by an experienced practitioner who wishes to remain anonymous.
1. Raman Spectroscopy
Water charged with non-Hertzian energy generated by the S-EMQS signal with the modified caduceus coil was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Overall, the spectra was similar to that of untreated control water, although an increase in the amplitude of a specific peak at 985 cm-1 was observed (Figure 1). The interpretation of this data is quite interesting because the observed non-Hertzian effect did not occur at 3400 cm-1 , the fundamental stretching frequency of the covalent (intramolecular) O--H bond or anywhere near the broad peak below 300 cm-1 which corresponds to the bending and stretching modes of the (intermolecular) hydrogen bond. Thus it appears that non-Hertzian energy produces an unusual change in the vibrational/ rotational modes of water and does not structure water by directly influencing the hydrogen bond.
2. UV Spectroscopy
In most of the experiments UV spectroscopy was used to measure the effects of non-Hertzian energy on water. In all the spectra presented below the wavelength of the absorbed light in nanometers (nm) (x axis) is plotted against the amount of light absorbed (arbitrary units on the y axis). For discussion purposes the UV spectra will be divided into three regions: 1) the peak at 186nm, 2) the near shoulder of that peak around 196nm and 3) the tail of that peak around 210nm. For comparison with the Raman spectra described above, UV spectroscopy was also used to analyze water charged with non-Hertzian energy generated by the S-EMQS signal with the modified caduceus coil. These results (Figure 2) indicate that water charged in this manner showed an increased absorption at 186nm as well as all frequencies up to 350nm where the absorption values gradually dropped to control values. Thus, charging water in this manner produces effects in all three regions of the spectra.
Identical experiments were conducted using a standard caduceus coil fed by the scan signal (37Hz to 37kHz). The scan signal was used to simulate the complex S-EMQS waveform, ie. the intention was to use as many harmonics as possible. The results in Figure 3 indicate a similar pattern as obtained with the S-EMQS signal through a modified caduceus coil in that all three regions of the spectra showed an increased absorption. However, the standard caduceus coil with the scan signal produced an additional shoulder peak at 196nm.
Since the complex S-EMQS and scan signals were so effective at changing the UV spectra, it was of interest to examine the effects of a single frequency. The simple 29kHz square wave pulse run through the standard caduceus coil produced a markedly different spectra. In this case absorption values at 286nm were less than in untreated control samples (see Figure 4). This inhibitory effect was seen throughout the spectra up to 300nm (data not shown). Therefore, the pattern was similar to that obtained with the modified caduceus coil (Figure 2), although exactly opposite in direction (ie. decreased absorption).
Decreased absorption values were also seen using a completely different signal generated from the REM Superpro. Water charged with the Superpro (Figure 5) in the continuous mode, which would generate a conventional EMF, produced a spectra which was similar to that obtained from water charged with the 29kHz signal (Figure 4). However, the water charged with the Superpro showed a decrease absorption only until 230nm. In the pulsed mode the Superpro produces a self-canceling electronic signal which generates a non-Hertzian field. This signal produced a markedly opposite effect than the continuous mode signal (both run through the same coil). Thus the non-Hertzian field produced a large increase in absorption at all three regions of the spectra. This pattern was similar to that obtained with the modified caduceus coil (Figure 2). The two signals generated from the Superpro were also measured using a version of Hodowanec's gravity wave detector (Hodowanec, 1989) modified by Jeff Byrd of ELF International. In the pulsed signal mode the device produced a deflection in detector, whereas the continuous signal did not. This finding supports the hypothesis that only the pulsed signal produces a non-Hertzian field.
Since these results clear indicated that non-Hertzian fields generated in several ways could alter the UV spectra of water, it was of interest to determine what effects a conventional EMF would produce. Similar results were obtained using the scan signal, the 29kHz signal and the wide band signal generated from the Goodfield. A typical spectra for water charged with the scan signal is shown in Figure 6 where a small increase in the absorption at 186nm can be seen although the remaining regions of the spectra were identical to control water. Thus EMF produce a small effect on the UV spectra of water and have a very different spectral pattern than observed with non-Hertzian energy.
To measure the reproducibility and experimental error associated with making repeat measurements on different samples, three control samples were measured. These samples, like all the treated samples, were taken from the same stock bottle of distilled water and were measured sequentially over a 15 minute time frame. The results, which are presented in Figure 7, indicate the spectra from the three samples are superimposable.
Previous studies have shown that water structured with non-Hertzian energy causes biological effects similar to those observed when the biological systems are directly exposed to the non-Hertzian fields (Gagnon and Rein, 1990). Homeopathically charged water, which is also biologically active, shows characteristic spectroscopic changes associated with increased structuring (Brucato,1966, Kenyon,1993 and Young,1975). These findings suggest that frequency information, whether derived from a chemical or directly put into water, can be stored in water and subsequently "read" by biological systems. It was therefore of interest to determine whether water structured with non-Hertzian information also showed such structural alterations.
The results of this study clearly indicate that water charged with non-Hertzian energy shows altered physical properties. One of the non-Hertzian fields used in the present study, the S-EMQS signal in conjunction with the modified caduceus coil, was previously shown by the author to increase DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes (Gagnon and Rein, 1990). Taken together these studies indicate the existence of a third category of charged water according to Patrovsky's classification- water which is both biologically active and structurally altered. Homeopathic remedies also fall into this third category. Previous findings also indicated that different frequencies of non-Hertzian energy produce different biological effects (Gagnon and Rein, 1990). The present study clearly demonstrates that different frequencies of non-Hertzian energy produce different structural changes in water. Therefore, at least for the S-EMQS signal, a direct correlation can be made between structural changes in water and biological changes.
Raman spectroscopy measures structuring of water according to its vibrational and rotational modes as well as the interaction between these modes. Raman spectroscopy therefore gives more information than IR spectroscopy which only measures the vibrational modes of water. Raman spectroscopy has not been previously used to study water charged with non-Hertzian energy. The effects observed with water charged with non-Hertzian energy, at 985 cm-1 is in a region of the spectra distinct from where changes have been observed with water charged with healing energy or from homeopathic succussion (Dean, 1983, Schwartz,1990 and Young,1975). Water charged with non-Hertzian energy did not show changes in these regions. These results suggest that non-Hertzian energy generated from a caduceus coil has different properties (at least in terms of its ability to change the structuring of water) than other forms of subtle energy. The portion of the spectra effected by non-Hertzian energy is known as the librational region and is due to restricted rotational motions arising from restraints placed on the individual water molecules due to hydrogen bonding. The librational part of the spectra for Raman spectroscopy is a broad region from 200-1100 cm-1 (Franks,1972). Although the non-Hertzian effect occurs within this region, it is still an anomaly since it produced a sharp peak at 985 cm-1.
UV spectroscopy has not been previously used to measure water charged with non-Hertzian energy/information. Unlike Infrared and Raman spectroscopy which measures the vibration/rotation modes of water molecules, UV spectroscopy measures electronic transitions at the atomic level. Externally applied UV light is absorbed by the water molecules and excites outer shell electrons to a higher orbital. It is the oxygen atom itself, rather than the hydrogen atom or the hydrogen bond, which is responsible for the absorption peak at 186nm. Therefore an increased absorption of this peak represents a facilitated movement of electrons to higher shells in the oxygen atom. The data presented here clearly indicate that non-Hertzian energy, depending on the frequency, can either increase or decrease the amplitude of the absorption peak at 186nm. Although the mechanism behind such changes is unknown, several explanations will be considered.
Non-Hertzian energy imparted into the water does not contain enough energy (several eV are required) to cause electrons to be excited, but apparently prior exposure of water to this form of subtle energy changes the susceptibility of the electrons to UV light from the spectrophotometer. In the case of the 29kHz signal through a standard caduceus coil the electrons were less easily excited (decreased absorption), whereas the scan signal through the same coil appears to have increased the susceptibility to UV (increased absorption).
Although non-Hertzian fields may not have enough energy to induce an electronic transition, they may contain enough information to change the qualitative nature of the transitions. It is well known that electron transitions are only allowed between certain energy states. For example, transitions are not allowed if the spin quantum number of the electron is altered. Since A fields and perhaps non-Hertzian fields are known to alter the phase of electrons (Chamber, 1960), it is conceivable that they might also alter their spin. This would allow new types of electron transitions to occur and might explain the anomalous observation of forbidden transitions observed by other investigators (Franks, 1972).
Since 100 fold less energy is required to change the hydrogen bonding of water than to excite electrons, non-Hertzian fields might directly effect the hydrogen bonds. This would change the clustering between individual water molecules resulting in a change in the molecular orbitals which would manifest as a shift in the UV spectra.
It is interesting to note that unlike conventional EMF which produce a small but localized effect at 186nm, non-Hertzian fields also produce effects at the shoulder and the low frequency end of the tail. In fact different frequencies produce different effects in these regions of the spectra. Although individual atoms absorb UV at discrete frequencies, wide peaks are characteristic of molecules (especially when in solution) which contain so many closely spaced electronic transitions that the spectrophotometer can not resolve them. The fact that non-Hertzian energy/information affected such a wide portion of the spectra (from 186 to 350nm) suggests that it is affecting a large number of electron transitions. The effect is not, however, non-specific since different frequencies effected different regions of the spectra. For example, one of the frequencies in the scan signal produces a small peak at 196nm which was not present in any of the other signals. Therefore, it is possible that the information associated with different frequencies of non-Hertzian energy could differentially effect specific electronic transitions.
he wide peak in the UV spectra of water may also be due to the presence of two main absorbing components. Assuming the 186nm peak is due to oxygen, there are two distinct sources of oxygen in water; the oxygen comprising the water molecule itself and the oxygen absorbed from the air. Since these two oxygen atoms have a different chemical environment, they will absorb UV light at a slightly different wavelength (in nm). If the two corresponding absorption peaks are too close together, they can not be resolved by the spectrophotometer and they appear as one wide peak. To keep the relative amounts of these two sources constant, the same ratio of air to water was used in all experiments. The results indicate that non-Hertzian energy effects both types of oxygen atoms similarly since the spectra obtained from charged water samples always runs parallel to control water spectra. However, the author has observed that other forms of subtle energy have differential effects on the two types of oxygen atoms since it has been observed that the spectra from charged and control water samples crossover.
Most of the theories which have been proposed to explain the anomalous ability of water to store information, whether chemical or frequency based, have focused on the ability of water to form 3D crystalline-like lattice structures. Nelson has extended this idea in proposing that alterations in the clath rate structure of water or the shape imparted into the liquid crystal structure of water is an important component to memory storage. He further proposes that the "quantic" state of the electron determines the ability of water to store higher dimensional energy (Nelson). This hypothesis is based on the very short life time (approximately 10-10 sec) for an individual hydrogen bond (Franks,1972). The rapid making and breaking of these bonds has therefore been considered a quantum/probabilistic event (Stanley,1981). The data reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that quantum events at the electron level are involved with the storage of non-Hertzian energy in water.
Quantum physics and quantum electrodynamics is also being used by DelGiudice to explain the memory of water. DelGiuidice's model of coherent domains in water offers a unique explanation for memory in water (DelGiudice,1988). The hypothesis predicts long-range coherent electromagnetic interactions between water molecules which are stable enough to engage electrostatic attractive forces. Therefore, coherent domains are set up which can exist permanently in the ground energy state. Although these localized coherent domains are separated by larger regions of incoherent bulk water, they can communicate using the Josephson effect.
Using quantum electrodynamics, DelGiudice further predicts that electric polarization waves can be generated in water as a result of small electrical disturbances. Electrical polarization is brought about when there is a spontaneous breakdown in rotational quantum symmetry (DelGiudice, 1986). A mathematical description of the electrical polarization reveals it is mediated by long range coherent electromagnetic fields which propagate via a self focusing mechanism reminiscent of a phenomenon called superradiance. Superradiance, which also requires breaking rotational symmetry, involves internal EM fields which are trapped within a physical region (DelGiudice, 1990). In the case of coherent domains of water, EM fields reflect off internal surfaces which act as a natural cavity preventing the EM field from radiating outward. In other superradiant systems, the trapped EM field can nonetheless propagate in a specialized vacuum-like region where the symmetry is broken and the current vanishes to zero. In the case of water this specialized region refers to a space where no coherent interactions are occurring between water molecules.
This unusual propagation without energy loss has been described by Anderson, Higgs and Kibble and is referred to as non-Maxwellian, superconducting and self focusing. Although the exact nature of these long-range fields is unknown, DelGiudice concludes that 1) they are associated with quantum potentials, 2) their photons acquire a non-zero mass, 3) they propagate without loosing energy (first described by Tesla) and 4) they are associated with several anomalous phenomena.
According to DelGiudice, non-Maxwellian propagation may also associated with charging of water with EMF (DelGiudice, 1986 and 1988). Using quantum field theory, DelGiudice proposes that the energy of an external EM field is stored in the long range coherent interactions between water molecules in a frequency dependent manner. Thus coherence will only be established between components resonating at the same frequency. After being absorbed in this network, the emitted EMF would propagate in a non-Maxwellian manner. This hypothesis offers a novel explanation for the storage of information in water. It is proposed here that non-Hertzian energy may also be absorbed and stored in the coherent network. The added frequency information would result in a change in the structuring of the water. The frequency dependence of the effects observed in this study offer direct experimental evidence in support of DelGiudice's theory of non-Maxwellian propagation in water.
Smith has utilized some of DelGiudice's findings in his model for information storage in water (Smith, 1994). Smith proposes that if the coherent domains in water can communicate using the Josephson effect, then water should be sensitive to magnetic flux quanta. This would result in a change in the magnetic flux density which would generate an internal EMF. Smith proposes that such an EMF could maintain the magnetic flux. The time-invariance of this process indicates that all frequencies could be stored.
Previous results by the author using water sequentially charged with two sets of non-Hertzian frequencies producing opposite biological effects are informative when discussing mechanisms of information storage in water. The fact that the new information was the set which was more easily read by the biological system suggests that the original set of frequencies were either erased or were stored in a non-readable configuration. Gagnon draws an analogy to a computer by postulating that the original frequencies were put in a back file. The possibility that two sets of frequencies can be stored simultaneously in water is not surprising considering complex homeopathic remedies are in fact such a mixture of frequencies. It is not clear in the case of non-Hertzian energy whether multiply sources of information can be stored or for that matter whether the nature of the stored energy is similar to the chemical information stored in a homeopathic remedy.
Nonetheless, the results of the present study clearly indicate that non-Hertzian energy/information can alter the UV spectra of water in a frequency specific manner. These results, when taken in conjunction with previous experiments indicating that water charged in this manner produces biological effects, indicate that some form of frequency information is stored in the water. Although conventional EMF also alter the UV spectra of water, these results are quantitatively and qualitatively different from the results obtained with non-Hertzian energy. The results therefore support previous research indicating the existence of non-Hertzian energy with different properties than classical EMF. The results presented in this paper offer a new experimental approach to studying the anomalous memory of water.
I would like to thank Eric Hammond of the Clarion Foundation (Redwood City, CA) for his assistance in all aspects of this project. A special thanks also goes to Eric Reiter of Computer Continuum (Daly City, CA) for his technical help. Ted Gagnon of Dynamic Engineering (Sacramento, CA), Jeff Byrd of ELF International (St.Francisville, Il) and Bernd Friedlander of Advanced Chiropractic Research (SanMateo, CA) were extremely helpful in loaning generators and coils. In addition, I would like to thank Bill Gough and Bob Shacklett of the Foundation for Mind Being Research (Los Altos, CA) for arranging the experiments with the Raman Spectrophotometer and Ken Sancier of the Qigong Institute (Menlo Park, CA) for helpful discussions.
Aharonov Y, Bohm D (1959) Significance of electromagnetic potential in quantum theory. Phys Rev 115:485-492.
Bearden TE (1990) Analysis of Scalar Electromagnetics Technology. Tesla Book Co. Greenville, TX.
Bohm D (1952) A suggested interpretation of quantum theory in terms of hidden variables. Phys Rev 85:166-175.
Bohm D (1990) Toward a new theory of the relationship of mind and matter. Frontier Sci Perspect 1:9-14.
Brucatto A, Stephenson J (1966) Dielectric strength testing of homeopathic dilutions of HgCl2. J Am Inst Homeopath 59:281-290.
Chambers R (1960) Shift of an electron interference pattern by enclosed magnetic flux. Phys Rev Lett 5:3-12.
Das S, Singhal GS (1985) Role of interfacial structured water in membranes. J Membrane Bio 86:221-227.
Dean D (1983) An examination of infra-red and ultra-violet techniques to test for changes in water following the laying-on of hands. Doctoral dissertation, Saybrook Institute, San Francisco, CA.
DelGiudice E, Doglia S, Milani M et al (1986) Electromagnetic field and spontaneous symmetry breaking in biological matter. Nuclear Phys B275:185-199.
DelGiudice E (1988) Water as a free electric dipole laser. Phys Rev Lett 61:1085-1088.
DelGiudice E (1990) Superradiance: a new approach to coherent dynamical behaviors of condensed matter. Frontier Perspectives 1:16--17.
Dorsey NE (1940) Properties of Ordinary Water Substance. Reinhold Pub Co. NY
Ecanow B, Gold B et al. (1976) Structured water in biology: a revolution in the making. J Pharm Sci 65:4-23.
Franks F (1972-82) Water, a comprehensive Treatise (7vols) Plenum Press, NY
Fullerton GD, Ord VA et al. (1986) An evaluation of the hydration of lysozyme by NMR. Biochem Biophys Acta 869:230-239.
Gagnon TA, Rein G (1990) The biological significance of water structured with non-Hertzian time-reversed waves. J US Psychotron Assoc 4:26-29.
Green JL, Lacey AR, Sceats MG (1986) Spectroscopic evidence for spatial correlation of hydrogen bonds in liquid water. J Phys Chem 90:3958-3967.
Herzog RE, Shi Q, Patil JN et al (1989) Magnetic water treatment:the effect of iron on calcium carbonate nucleation and growth. Langmuir 5:861-863.
Hodowanec G (1989) All about gravitational impulses. Radio Electron Experiment Handbook, January, 1989, p114-129.
Jaberansari M (1989) Electric and magnetic phenomena in water and living systems. PhD thesis, Salford University, Salford, England.
Kenyon JN (1993) Preliminary studies revealing structure in water connected with homeopathic remedies. 3rd Ann Conf Internat Soc Study Subtle Energy & Energy Med. Monterey, CA.
King M (1990) Tapping the Zero Point Energy. Paraclette Pub. Provo, UT
Klassen VI, Zhilenko GV, Berger GS et al (1968) Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 183:1123-1130.
Kronenberg KJ (1989) Magnetic water treatment demystified. Raum & Zeit 1:58-65.
Lareta-Garde V, Xu ZF, Lamy L et al (1988) Lysozyme kinetics in low water activity media: a possible hydration memory. Biochem Biophy Res Comm 155:816-822.
Minenko VI, Petrov SM (1969) Physicochemical principles of magnetic water treatment. Foreign Science Bull 1:2-13.
Nelson WC. Quantum Quality Control. Academy of Applied Bio-Quantum Technologies, Rio Rancho, NM
Olariu S, Popescu I (1985) The quantum effect of electromagnetic fluxes. Rev Modern Phys 57:339-358.
Pople JA. Proc.Royal Soc.A 205:163-171, 1951.
Rein G (1991) Utilization of a cell culture bioassay for measuring quantum field generated from a modified caduceus coil. Proc.26th Intersoc Energy Conversion Engineer Conf. Boston, MA.
Schwartz SA, DeMattei RJ, Brame EG et al (1990) Infrared spectra alteration in water proximate to the palms of therapeutic practitioners. Subtle Energy 1:43-72.
Smith WB (1964) The caduceus coil. in The New Science, Fern-Graphic Pub. Mississauga, Ontario.
Smith CW, Choy RYS, Monro JA (1989) The diagnosis and therapy of electrical hypersensitivity. Clin Ecology 6:119-128.
Smith CW (1994) Electromagnetic Bio-information and Water. In: Ultra High Dilutions-Physiology and Physics. Endler (ed) Kluiver Acad Pub.
Stanley HE, Teixeirs J, Geiger A et al (1981) Physica 106A:260-267.
Taylor RB (1991) Scalar fields, subtle energy and the multidimensional universe. Caduceus. Autum issue 28-34.
Trincher K (1981) Water Res 15:433-448.
Walrafen GE (1964) Raman spectral studies of water structure. J Chem Phys 40:3249-3264.
Wekroma AG (1989) The use of magnetic vector potentials for the treatment of materials. FRG Pat No 3938511.6, Nov 19, 1989.
Young TM (1975) NMR studies of successed solutions: a preliminary report. J Homeop 68:8-15.r paragraph here.
INNOVATIVE BIOPHYSICAL TECHNOLOGIES